Elettaria cardamomum a tall herbaceous perennial, with branching subterranean rootstock, from which arise a number of upright leafy shoots, 5-12ft. high, bearing alternate, elliptical or lanceolate sheathing leaves, 1-3 ft long. Flowers borne in panicles, 2-4 ft long, arising from the base of vegetative shoots; panicles upright at first and ultimateliy pendient or prostrate; flowers about 1.5 inches long, white or pale green in colour with a central lip streaked with violet, borne in a close series on the rachis; they are bisexual, but self-sterile, and open in succession from the base towards the tip. Furits trilocular capsules, fusiform to ovoid, pale green to yellow in colour, containing 15-20 hard, browinish black, angled and rugose seeds, covered by a thin mucilaginous membrane. The herb is also helpful in treating gum and teeth infections, throat congestion and kidney disorders. It is sensitive to drought and water-logging.